Faculty of Public Health - Andalas University - OCS, 13th IEA SEA Meeting and ICPH - SDev

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Food Security and Malnutrition in India: A review
Nancy Satpathy

Last modified: 2018-08-09

Abstract


Background: This study assesses the food insecurity and performance of key malnutrition indicators with focus on interstate and rural-urban disparity that are implicated in achieving SDG Goal 2 in India.

Methods: Data from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) were analyzed to assess the food security status and nutritional status of Indian population. The results were triangulated with scoping review of literature.

Results:

Average dietary energy supply adequacy in India during 2014-16 was 109% with depth of the food deficit as 105%. The number of severely food insecure people was not reported. The prevalence of under-five-underweight was higher in rural India 38.3%(range:1.3-49.8%) than the urban India 29.1%(range:8.5-39.3%). Anaemia among 6-59months children was also higher in rural 59.4% (range:22.3-87.7%) than urban 55.9%(range:13.2-80.1%) population. The proportion stunted children was 41.2%(range:19.5-49.3%) in rural and 31%(range;17.1-39.8) in urban India respectively. Similarly the prevalence of anaemia among adult male 22.7%(U-18.4,R-25.2) and female 53% (U-50.8,R-54.2); as well as prevalence of underweight among adult male 20.2%(U-15.3,R-23) and female 22.9%(U-15.5,R-26.7) had shown rural skewness.

Conclusion:

Despite of adequate national food security, the rural-urban and interstate disparity suggests inequity in nutrition status of Indian population. Policy targeting inequity in nutrition and its implementation needs urgent attention of policy makers.