Faculty of Public Health - Andalas University - OCS, 13th IEA SEA Meeting and ICPH - SDev

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Obesity and Lifestyle Factors as Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Manado City
Grace Debbie Kandou, Budi Tarmady Ratag, Angela Fitriani Clementine Kalesaran, Priscilla Caroline Kandou

Last modified: 2018-09-16


Background: One of the targets in achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to reduce one-third of the early death rate from non-communicable diseases (NCD). The number of diabetes mellitus (DM) events in the world continues to increase yearly. High prevalence of DM cases in the community are caused by various factors such as lifestyle changes and obesity. DM prevalence in urban areas tends to be higher than in rural areas. This can be seen from the data of Manado City Health Office where DM ranks the fifth of the total 10 Prominent Diseases in Manado City Year 2017 with 939 cases. The aim of this study is to analyze obesity, smoking, physical activity, and family history of DM as determinants of the Type 2 DM (T2DM) in Manado City.

Materials and methods: This was a matched case-control study conducted in 5 public health centers (PHC) in Manado City during April-July 2018. The population was outpatients who visited 5 PHC. Cases were outpatients clinically diagnosed with T2DM by doctor. Cases were matched to controls in a 1:1 ratio based on age and sex. Sampling used simple random sampling technique with total of 128 respondents. The data were analyzed by McNemar test and conditional logistic regression.

Results: The results showed that p value of obesity was 0.000 (OR=7.75, 95% CI=2.73-21.95), smoking was 0.208 (OR=1.58, 95% CI=0.76-3.26), physical activity of 0.000 (OR=11.00, 95% CI=3.37-35.86) and family history of DM was 0.000 (OR=7.00, 95% CI=2.45-19.95). Multivariate modeling showed physical activity had the highest risk to T2DM. The effect of physical activity on T2DM after controlling obesity, smoking, and family history equals to OR=7.89.

Conclusions: Significant associations were found between obesity, physical activity, and family history of DM with T2DM in people in Manado City where physical activity has the highest risk. Changes in daily lifestyle is highly recommended to prevent the increased risk of T2DM, particularly with frequent physical activity such as jogging, running, walking, or other aerobic exercise to increase insulin sensitivity.


Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Research and Community Service Institute of Sam Ratulangi University. We also thank our colleagues from North Sulawesi Provincial Health Office, Manado City Health Office, Bahu Public Health Center, Ranotana Weru Public Health Center, Tikala Baru Public Health Center, Sario Public Health Center, Teling Public Health Center for assistance in data collection.


Keywords:  diabetes, lifestyle, obesity, physical activity